By Zoe Erotopoulos
Vexed via French verbs? worry no more!
In 500 French Verbs For Dummies, starting French language newcomers can discover a fast reference for verbs within the easy current tenses. extra complicated French audio system can make the most of this booklet to profit extra advanced verb tenses and conjugations in addition to complex verbs with abnormal endings.
500 French Verbs For Dummies is helpful for college kids, tourists, execs, and life-long newbies who want a connection with the intricacies of French verb usage.
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Extra info for 500 French Verbs For Dummies
It was no surprise to discover that in all types of discourse—spoken, journalistic and literary—grammatical words were by far the most frequent; the thirty ‘top’ items were all words like pronouns, determiners, prepositions, auxiliary verbs, conjunctions and the like. Then came lexical items with very broad meanings like mettre, aller, autre, petit, grand… Any one text or utterance consists of many occurrences of this kind of word, plus a far wider range of much less frequently occurring words.
The greater degree of transparency, that is, a clear relationship between form and meaning, displayed in most of the more analytic forms just mentioned, must have been one of the underlying reasons for the success of many early neologisms. Matrastra ‘stepmother’ (>marâtre), for example, consisting of mater, the root morpheme for ‘mother’ plus a pejorative suffix, replaced the opaque noverca, just as patraster ‘stepfather’ (>parâtre—now obsolete) replaced vitricus. Similarly the compound calvas sorices (>chauvessouris, ‘bats’, literally ‘bald mice’) replaced vespertiliones and sanguisuga The lexical foundations of French 31 (>sangsue ‘leech’, literally ‘blood-sucker’), hirudo.
Epervier ‘sparrowhawk’, faucon, gerfaut ‘gyrfalcon’ and leurre ‘lure’ reflect the Frankish passion for falconry. The borrowing of mésange ‘titmouse’ is probably due to the fact that the bird was protected by an ancient taboo, while the flight of the freux ‘rook’ was used in divination. Hallier, now meaning brushwood, but derived from the word for ‘hazel’, also carried religious significance, since fencing made of hazel branches was thought to have beneficial magical properties. In the field of warfare we find trêve ‘truce’, guet ‘watch’, and the verbs frapper, blesser, meurtrir, épargner and garder (originally with the sense of ‘guard’).