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By Christian Puff

Biosystematic reports at the Rubiaceae have an extended culture on the Institute of Botany in Vienna. inside this family members the Anthospermeae, and particularly its African and Madagascan participants, are of specific curiosity due to a number of features of their evolution: I) Perfection of anemophily inside of an another way approximately completely zoophilous relatives; 2) transitions from hermaphrodity to polygamy and at last dioecy; three) differentiation from huge and long-lived shrubs to short-lived herbs; four) adaptive radiation from humid to seasonally dry, fire-exposed and xeric habitats. despite the fact that, morphological range associated with sexual differentia­ tion, modificatory plasticity, and eco-geographical polymorphism have for a very long time hampered our knowing of the relationships between those African Anthospermeae. hence, it used to be central to place particular emphasis on box observations and to hold out various experiments with cultivated vegetation as well as the research of a tremendous herbarium fabric. the writer, as a result, conducted vast box paintings, usually lower than very opposed stipulations, and coated such a lot African international locations from Ethiopia to Southern Africa and two times visited Madagascar. during this method a large number of knowledge was once collected at the staff in appreciate to germination and progress shape, vegetative and reproductive morphology, anatomy and biology, embryology, karyology, crossing relationships, phytochemistry, distribu­ tion and ecology, etc.

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Extra info for A Biosystematic Study of the African and Madagascan Rubiaceae-Anthospermeae

Sample text

J- g A. esterhuysenianum (PUFF 800924-3/ 2), upper epidermis,fin the midrib region, g between midrib region and margin. - Semi schematic camera lucida drawings; black dots: cells filled with tannin; chlorenchyma: palisade layers as straight lines, spongy mesophyll dotted. 1 mm 50 C. General Part Fig. 21. Leaf sections of Anthospermum. a A. hispidulum (PUFF 780312-1/1). b A. zimbabwense (PUFF 790124-212). c A. hirtum (PUFF 800903-1/2), note papillate lower epidermis. d A. longisepalum (PUFF 800814-211).

While anisophylly is certainly not very pronounced in the vegetative region (the leaves of A. esterhuysenianum, for example, are only very slightly anisophyllous), it can be more obvious in the inflorescence region (cf. anisophyllous bract pair of C. scabra subsp. scabra, Fig. 11 b; see 5. for details). 4. , A. ammannioides, A. aethiopicum, A. galpinii, A. spathulatum, and others) and hardly become older (N. ). Dried, brown (long and short shoot) leaves, however, do not drop off readily but remain on the plants for several years (cf.

1. Fire Bush fires kill the aerial woody shoots of shrubby or dwarf shrubby species. ). Flowering aerial shoots produced after a C. General Part 32 fire are frequently unbranched and, furthermore, differ from older, woody branches of un burnt plants (of the same population) in internode length and leaf size and shape. , A. pumilum subsp. pumilum, Fig. 8 a and diagram, Fig. 7 c). Recurrent fires may cause the development of rather extensive, often almost disk-like woody bases ("xylopodia"), which can be up to 5 cm in diam.

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