By Gregory White
Examines how emerging fiscal integration with Europe affects Tunisia and Morocco.
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In his Discourse-Programme to the National Assembly in November 1970, Nouira stated: In place of an administrative economy, we have to reconstitute an economy obedient to the rules of efﬁciency and proﬁtability. The law of the market is a hard law but it is the law of truth and of progress. . Industrial growth should be sought by the improvement of productivity, the enlargement of industrial bases and the insertion into exterior markets. 5 As Nouira commanded, ofﬁcial policy placed fundamental emphasis on the export of textiles and shoes to the European market, as well as a tourism sector oriented to European consumers.
Along with the wide variety of natural beauty, Morocco possesses a diversity of natural resources. During the colonial era, much like Tunisia, French authorities sought to develop Morocco’s export crops for use in the metropole. As Vafﬁer-Pollet wrote in 1906: “The true fortune of Morocco resides in its agriculture. 40 The effort to develop Morocco à la Californie has had a lasting impact on Moroccan agriculture, leaving both a legacy of irrigated lands as well as a bimodal class structure from the colonial era.
A brief discussion of Morocco’s political economy will set the stage for some tentative answers. MOROCCANIZATION IN THE 1970S, STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT IN THE 1980S Morocco was much less stable than Tunisia in the 1960s, with riots in Casablanca in 1965 the most conspicuous manifestation of public disenchantment with Hassan’s authoritarian rule. 13 Hassan suspended the constitution in June 1965 and conﬁned the monarchy behind the military. The palace permitted the approval of a new constitution in 1970, but Hassan’s power remained tenuous.