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By Marcel Erdal

Previous Turkic is the earliest, without delay attested Turkic language. This unique paintings describes the grammar of outdated Turkic. The language is documented in inscriptions within the 'runic' script in Mongolia and the Yenisey basin, from the 7th to the 10th century; in Uygur manuscripts from chinese language Turkestan in Uygur, and in runic and different scripts (comprising non secular – often Buddhist –, felony, literary, scientific, folkloric, astrological and private material), from the 9th to the 13th century; and in eleventh-century Qarakhanid texts, commonly in Arabic writing. All elements of previous Turkic are handled: phonology, subphonemic phenomena and morphophonology, and how those are mirrored within the a variety of scripts, derivational and inflectional morphology, grammatical different types, observe periods, syntax, textual and extra-textual reference and different technique of coherence, lexical fields, discourse varieties, phrasing in addition to stylistic, dialect and diachronic version.

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To this day, Gabain 1941 has remained the standard grammar of the language;46 it reappeared, with a few additions and corrections, in 1950 and again in 1974. M. M. Nasilov (1961 on the runiform inscriptions and 1963 on Uygur). Then came Ajdarov 1966 on the language of the Köl Tegin inscription and Kondrat’ev 1970 on the whole Old Turkic corpus. Tekin 1968 and Ajdarov 1971 both describe the language of the Orkhon inscriptions, while Kononov 1980 describes the runiform sources as a whole. Tekin’s work covers all grammatical domains of this small corpus in structuralist exhaustiveness and also presents a full concordance of the lexicon including proper names as well as new editions and translations of the texts.

That there was a correlation between the path of borrowing and the linguistic shape of the Old Turkic texts themselves, and from Röhrborn 1983. Shǀgaito thought the spelling of high vowels as low ones in preclassical texts together with the frequent omission of these vowels meant that they were pronounced short. This hypothesis (which seems plausible) is quite distinct from the ‘helping vowels’ hypothesis, as it does not refer only to suffix vowels, and not only to fourfold harmony vowels (which are not, after all, the only ones affected).

G. 36 Doerfer 1993: 115-119 mentions that this 35 We take -gUl to have fused from -gU ol, a marker of impersonal mood, but in some of its instances it appears in parallelism with gIl; the matter is not completely clear. 36 As Zieme 1969: 23 notes in connection with the Pothi book where such confusions are especially prominent, they are referred to as ‘Mongolisms’ because they generally appear during Mongol domination (which is rather late as far as Old Turkic corpus is concerned); he does not, however, draw the conclusion that the Pothi book must be late.

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