By S. Y. Lee
Study and improvement of excessive strength accelerators started in 1911.
(1) improvement of excessive gradient dc and rf accelerators,
(2) fulfillment of excessive box magnets with very good box quality,
(3) discovery of transverse and longitudinal beam focusing principles,
(4) invention of excessive strength rf sources,
(5) development of ultra-high vacuum technology,
(6) attainment of excessive brightness (polarized/unpolarized) electron/ionsources,
(7) development of beam dynamics and beam manipulation schemes, corresponding to beam injection, accumulation, sluggish and speedy extraction, beam damping and beam cooling, instability suggestions, laser-beam interplay and harvesting instability for prime brilliance coherent photon source.
The affects of the accelerator improvement are evidenced through the numerous ground-breaking discoveries in particle and nuclear physics, atomic and molecular physics, condensed topic physics, biology, biomedical physics, nuclear drugs, scientific remedy, and commercial processing. This publication is meant for use as a graduate or senior undergraduate textbook in accelerator physics and technological know-how. it may be used as preparatory direction fabric in graduate accelerator physics thesis learn. The textual content covers old accelerator improvement, transverse betatron movement, synchrotron movement, an advent to linear accelerators, and synchrotron radiation phenomena in low emittance electron garage jewelry, advent to important subject matters reminiscent of the loose electron laser and the beam-beam interplay. awareness is paid to derivation of the action-angle variables of the section area, as the transformation is critical for figuring out complex subject matters corresponding to the collective instability and nonlinear beam dynamics. every one part is by means of routines, that are designed to augment suggestions and to resolve reasonable accelerator layout difficulties.
Readership: Accelerator, high-energy, nuclear, plasma and utilized physicists.
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Additional resources for Accelerator physics
Thus the pole shapes of quadrupoles are hyperbolic curves with xz = o 2 /2. The pole-tip field is jBpoie tip = Ka. 9 Tesla. The achievable gradient is B\ = Bv0\e tip/a- Show that the gradient field is Bx = 2naNI/a2, where NI is the number of ampere-turns per pole, and a is the half-aperture of the quadrupole. The inductance in an ideal quadrupole is _ 8M0iV2l 2 a2 (Xc o4 8noN2e 12x? j R i a2 2 X" where xc is the distance of the conductor from the center of the quadrupole. In reality, x2 should be replaced by x\ + xcwc, where wc is the width of the pole.
Langmuir, Phys. Rev. 32, 450 (1913). T. Forrester, Large Ion Beams (Wiley, New York, 1988). EXERCISE 33 1 position vector as R = rr + ss. Let VQ(S) be the electric potential on the axis of symmetry. Show that the electric potential V(r, s) and the electric field E = Err + Ess are y(4) VW V(r,s)=V0(s)-^rr*-^rri , , 1/(3) + ---, T/(5) where VJj correspond to nth-derivative of Vb with respect to s. The equation of motion for a non-relativistic particle in the electric field is mR = eE, where the overdot represents the time derivative.
18) where AV = VQ sin(wrft + >) is the effective gap voltage, wrf is the rf frequency, Vo is the effective peak accelerating voltage, and 4> is the phase angle. Low frequency rf cavities are usually used to accelerate hadron beams, and high frequency rf cavities to accelerate electron beams. , have been proposed for high-gradient accelerators. , Advanced Accelerator Concepts, AIP Conf. Proc. No. 398, S. , Eds. (1996) and reference therein. 20 CHAPTER 1. 6: A small accelerator, the Cooler Injector Synchrotron (CIS) at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility.