By T. Cox, P. D'Antonio
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Additional info for Acoustic Absorbers and Diffusers - Theory, Design and Application
1 Schroeder diffusers (QRDs1) applied to the rear wall of Carnegie hall to prevent echoes (after D’Antonio and Cox ). Chapter 10. This form of reflection phase grating was the starting catalyst for modern diffuser research about three decades ago. The diffusers were installed in Carnegie Hall because a long delayed reflection from the rear wall caused an echo to be heard on the stage making it difficult for musicians to play in time with each other. Adding diffusers dispersed the reflection, reducing the reflection level arriving on the stage and consequently making the reflection inaudible.
Porous absorbers are only effective at mid- to high frequencies, but this is where the ear is most sensitive, and consequently where noise control is most needed in the working environment. Factories tend to be very disproportionately dimensioned; they have very low ceilings compared to their widths and lengths. 3, are unlikely to work. For statistical room acoustics to hold, the space needs to be diffuse. A diffuse field is one where there is uniform reflected energy density across the whole room, and all directions of propagation are equally probable.
There are a variety of models in the literature, but the one outlined in Chapter 5 uses three additional parameters, two characteristic lengths and tortuosity. These are more complete models of porous absorbents, but suffer from the problem that the characteristic lengths have to be fitted empirically, and consequently the verification of the accuracy of the theories is rather circular. It is possible to directly measure the surface impedance, pressure reflection factor or absorption coefficient of a sample.