Download Radical Sociology of Durkheim and Mauss by Mike J. Gane PDF

By Mike J. Gane

During this awesome assortment, Mike Gane brings jointly a variety of key articles on Durkheim and Mauss exhibiting their issues of convergence and divergence. integrated listed below are Mauss's 'A sociological overview of Bolshevism 1924-5' and his 'Letters on Communism, Fascism and Nazism'. this can be an engrossing e-book not just for students and scholars of Durkheim and Mauss yet for someone drawn to radical social idea.

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Capital punishment is no longer accompanied by the same refined cruelties. It even seems that, for a considerable period of time, stoning was the only way it was done; it is only in the rabbinical t e x t s t h a t t h e re i s m e n t i o n o f b u r n i n g , b e h e a d i n g a n d strangulation. 10 Mutilation, so widely practised by the other Oriental peoples, is only mentioned once in the Pentateuch. 11 True, the principle of retaliation, when the crime involved wounding someone, might involve mutilation; but the guilty party could always escape this by means of a financial settlement; this practice was only forbidden in case of murder.

But to the extent that society is centralised, these elementary groups lose their autonomy and b ecome merged with the total mass, and responsibility becomes individual. Consequently, some measures are necessary to prevent punishment being evaded by the flight of Two laws of penal evolution 35 those who have earned it and, as the least offensive to established morality, imprisonment makes its appearance. We find it in Athens, Rome, and among the Hebrews after the time of the Exile. But it is so contrary to the principles of ancient social organisation that it runs up against obstacles which narrowly restrict its use, at least wherever the power of the state is subject to some limitation.

Moreover, we are obliged to conceive of this force as a power which is not only extraneous, but even superior to us, since it gives the orders and we obey them. This voice which speaks within us in such an imperious tone, which enjoins us to do violence to our nature, can come only from a being other than ourselves, and one, moreover, which dominates us. In whatever special form men have portrayed it (god, ancestors, august personages of all kinds), it always has in its relation to them something transcendent, superhuman about it.

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