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By Charles W. Bergquist, Ricardo Penaranda, Gonzalo Sanchez G.

Colombia has lengthy suffered below such violence that it truly is now probably the most convulsed societies on the earth. faraway from being the results of completely the drug alternate, the country's modern quandary stems from l. a. Violencia ("The Violence"), a interval of terror, political banditry and peasant unrest that plagued Colombia among the Nineteen Forties and the Nineteen Sixties. The 14 essays during this assortment learn l. a. Violencia and its results on present stipulations, putting cutting-edge violence in its historic context. The members are experts in social technology, historical past and similar fields, from the us, Colombia and different nations. They not just research the jobs performed by means of the drug mafia, guerillas and sophistication clash, but in addition recommend reforms that would supply a basic problem to Colombian society.

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In enunciating the latter principle, Payne had in mind something similar to the overthrow of Laureano Gómez in 1953, which became possible once Gómez had alienated the Ospinista wing of his own Conservative party almost as thoroughly as the opposition Liberals. 9 The circumstances that led to the successful revolution against the government of Mariano Ospina Rodríguez or to the coups that removed from office Mosquera and Sanclemente were not exactly similar, but in each case there was serious strife within the governing party whereas under normal circumstances the instinctive party loyalties would have provided a government under fire with the needed margin of safety.

If according to Karl von Clausewitz war is the continuation of diplomacy by other means, then it might be said that in nineteenth-century Colombia there was not always a clear distinction between election campaigns and revolutionary violence. Even so, the casualty rate was normally a good bit lower in elections. What both types of political conflict had in common was the role of the two traditional parties, at least from the time those parties came into existence. Curiously, however, Colombian scholars still cannot agree on either when the parties were created or what sectors of the population they represented and indeed if there were significant differences between them in that regard.

The list does not include abortive coup attempts, such as the unsuccessful effort to overthrow and assassinate Bolívar in September 1828, although the uprising of José María Obando and José Hilario López, which was part of the same broad movement against the Bolivarian dictatorship, heads the list. Neither does it include conspiracies that were discovered and repressed before they had a chance to go into effect, for example, the 1833 plot of José Sardá against the administration of Francisco de Paula Santander.

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